Thursday, February 28, 2019
Compare and Contrast two theories of Bystander Behaviour Essay
A man approached the gates of heaven and asked to be admitted. Tell me one good thing you have ever do in your life, said St Peter. Well, said the man. I maxim a group of skinheads harassing an elderly lady and so I went over and kicked the leader in the shin. Impressed, St Peter asked when this act of courageousness had occurred. About 40 seconds ago, came the response. (Cardwell, Clark & Meldrum 2001)Bystander apathy (effect) can be defined as a tendency for people to more likely act in an exigency or come to the aid of former(a) when they are alone, or conversely, the lesser likelihood of an observer to help people in commove if other people are present. (Corsini 1999). There have been many theories environ bystander behaviour twain prominent examples are Latan and Darleys (1970) Cognitive baffle and Piliavin et al.s (1981) Bystander-calculus influence. These theories have been widely discussed and have many similar and tell ideas.Latan and Darleys cognitive model of bys tander behaviour is considered a classic possibility in psychology it uses a five stage model to place that bystander intervention depends on the outcomes of a serial of decisions. These stages progress from whether the bystander notices the incident to find whether their intervention would put them in danger. The model argues that a persons response could be prevented at any time during the five stages, examples of these are audience inhibition, social influence and norms, and diffusion of responsibility. (Latan & Nida 1981).A series of experiments were conducted in support of this theory. Latan and Darley (1970) carried out an experiment whereby male participants were invited to discuss around of the problems involved in life at a large university. spell they were completing a questionnaire the room was filled with smoke through a wall vent. Participants were either alone, with two other participants they did not know, or with two confederates who completely ignored the smo ke.Latanand Darley wanted to establish how the participants would react and how long they took to do it. The results showed that the hypothesis that people in such federal agencys look to others around them to root what to do was correct. 75% of the participants that were alone took positive action, 38% of the two-stranger groups reacted the kindred way, and single 10% of participants grouped with two confederates acted. Latan and Darley concluded that the presence of others can inhibit people from responding in an emergency the more people, the slower the response. (Hogg & Vaughan 2002)In call of evaluating Latan and Darleys model, Schroeder et al. (1995) believe that this model provides a valuable framework for consciousness Bystander behaviour. Although this model was originally designed to explain intervention in emergency situations it has been successfully applied to many other events. However, it doesnt provide a complete picture it doesnt tell us wherefore these no de cisions are taken at any of the five steps, particularly when the situation has been defined as an emergency and personal responsibility has been accepted. Also, as Dovidio (1995) points out, the model focuses on why people dont help others why people do intervene needs to be considered and research has shown that Piliavin et al.s (1969,1981) Arousal-Cost-Reward impersonate investigates this.The second study theory surrounding Bystander Behaviour is the Arousal-Cost-Reward Model formulated by Piliavin et al. (1969, 1981). This theory was first developed in 1969 as an attempt to provide an explanation for the results of the New York Subway experiment. It was later revise in 1981 to cover both emergency and non-emergency intervention.The Arousal-Cost -Reward theory is a major alternative to Latan and Darleys (1970) cognitive model it has been suggested that it is a fine correct of some of the processes outlined in the decision model by identifying a number of critical situational and bystander variables that help to determine whether the bystander will intervene in various circumstances. However, Latan and Darley noted that labelling the failure to help a victim in an emergency is too simplistic as it could be concealing other variables and processes. (Hogg & Vaughan 2002)In 1981 Piliavin et al. revised the model and began to consider the influence of a tender range of variables, such as bystander personality and mood, the clarity of the emergency, victim and effectiveness helpers and the attributions made by potential helpers and the victims deservingness. Although some of these variables are addressed in Latan and Darleys (1970) cognitive model, they are not focused on to the same extent.