Thursday, June 6, 2019

Evaluation of Some Energy Drinks Essay Example for Free

Evaluation of Some dynamism Drinks EssayAbstract cogency drinks are beverages which transport chemical constituents that are give tongue to to improve physical and mental process. Most of them primarily contain varying amounts of caffein, guarana, ginseng and taurine. This orbit aims to provide a critical review regarding the adverse issuanceuate of excessive daily intake of zippo drinks. Five commercially available energy drinks were used as the subject of the study. The median(a) consumption of a veritable component was compared to the serving size included in each ware.It was effectuate out that the consumption of the ingredients to a greater extent than the recommended amounts per day may clear physiological case effects. There is no aesculapian use for energy drinks, however several ingredients in some of these drinks have been found to be helpful in the medical perspective. Keyword(s) energy drinks 1. Introduction In the past decades, the beverage industry paved the way to the rise of caffeinated energy drinks in the market. Back in early 1960s, it first of all appeared in Europe and Asia in response to the consumers demand for a dietary supplement that would result in increased energy (Reissig et al., 2009).Basically, energy drinks refer to beverages that contain mainly caffeine, alongside other active constituents which includes varying amounts of guarana extract, taurine, vitamins, amino acids and herbal extracts. These purportedly provide benefits such as increased mental alertness, physical endurance, performance and stamina (Simon and Mosher, 2007 Babu et al. , 2008). Conversely, there is inadequate evidence that consumption of energy drinks can significantly improve both physical and mental performance (Scholey and Kennedy, 2004).The all-inclusive availability and distribution of energy drinks makes them readily accessible for purchase by adolescents. Market surveys indicate that 31% of those aged 12 to 17 are unremitting c onsumers of energy drinks, as are 34% of aged 18 to 24 (Simon and Mosher, 2007). Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of the ingredients present in energy drinks on children and adolescents. This study was conducted due to the core objective of making the public aware of the adverse effects of energy drinks, especially to children. Adverse reactions and toxicity from high-energy drinks mainly al-Qaida from their caffeine content (Reissig et al. , 2009).The dark dose of pure caffeine in adults is 5 to 10 grams when taken orally and 3. 5 grams by injection. In children, the fatal dose is much lower (Health Canada, 2000). Children who consume too much caffeine are at higher risk for behavioral effects, such as anxiety, bodily fluid changes and loss of attentiveness. A daily intake of less than 45 to 85 mg is recommended, depending on the childs health condition (Health Canada, 2003). Based on a survey, it was found out that 42. 3% of the youth (ages 11 to 18) consumes en ergy drinks (ODea, 2003). At risk children having excessive daily intake of caffeine should be hold in to no more than 2.5 mg caffeine/kg body weight, and may need to avoid consuming energy beverages with higher caffeine content. Adolescents should frontier caffeine consumption as well as intakes greater than 100 mg/day for reports says that it has been directly correlated with an increase in blood force (Savoca et al. , 2004). 2. Materials and Methods 2. 1 Research Design The research is focused on the components of energy drinks where five products were sampled namely reaping A, B, C, D, and E. The researchers acquired a sample of each product. 2. 2 consume and Acquisition of Samples Products A, B, C, D, and E were randomly sampled.Fish bowl sampling was used where the names of these products were written on a piece of paper. Out of 7, 5 products of energy drink were picked from a bowl. Slovins formula was used and the margin of error was set to 20%. One out of seven is the p robability of each to be chosen. The 5 energy drink products were acquired through purchase. 2. 3 Gathering of selective information Each of the products underwent examining of the researchers. The composition information has been referred to for the determination of ingredients of each product. The data was listed and tabulated (Refer to set back 3. 1).This was do to compare their components and to determine which products share the same components. Nutrition information was besides included. 2. 4Analysis of the Components The ingredients of products were analyzed through research. The researchers studied the primary and side effects of some of the ingredients. The ordinary consumption of an average human of a certain component was compared to the serving size included in each product.3. Results and Discussion PRODUCT A upkeep INFORMATION divine serviceS PER PACK 1 SERVING surface 250mL QUANTITY PER SERVING PER 100mL Energy 140 cal 14cal Carbohydrates, sum up 34g 14g. shek els 33g 13g Sodium 60mg 24mg Taurine 1000mg 400mg Caffeine 80mg 32mg Inositol 25mg 10mg nin-sin Root Extract 25mg 10mg Guarana Seed Extract 25mg 10mg Niacin 9mg 3. 6mg Pantothenic Acid 3mg 1. 2mg Vitamin B6 1mg 0. 4mg Vitamin B12 2mcg 0. 8mcg Ingredients carbonate Water, Sucrose, Glucose, citric Acid, Glucuronolactone, Taurine, Sodium Citrate, Sodium Chloride, Natural Artificial Flavors, Caffeine, Caramel Color, Inositol, Guarana Seed Extract, genus Panax ginseng (Root Extract), Niacin, Pantothenic Acid, Riboflavin, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Cyanocobalamin, Eu Energy Blend. Figure 1.Nutrition Information and Ingredients of Product A. PRODUCT B NUTRITION INFORMATION SERVINGS PER PACK 1 SERVING SIZE 180mL PER 180mL (1 serving) %RENI* or %U. S. -DRI** Calories 50Kcal 2% Total Fat 0g - Sodium 0g - Total Carbohydrate 12. 5g 10%* Sugar 12. 5g - Vitamin B1 1. 2mg 100% Vitamin B2 1. 7mg 131% Niacinamide 20mg 125% Vitamin B6 1. 9mg 146% Inositol 50mg - ginseng 25mg - Royal jelly 100mg - Iron 5mg 42% Taurine 1000mg - Caffeine (anhydrous) 50mg - *Recommended Energy and Nutrient Intakes fro Filipinos **U. S. Dietary Reference Intake (used if no RENI).Ingredients Sucrose, Taurine, Citric Acid, Nature-identical Flavors, Royal Jelly, Sodium Benzoate, Inositol, Caffeine, Ferric Pyrophosphate, Sucralose, Ginseng Extract (Panax), Mulitivitamins, Pure Water Figure 2. Nutrition Information and Ingredients of Product B. PRODUCT C NUTRITION INFORMATION SERVINGS PER PACK 1 SERVING SIZE 330mL PER SERVING %RENI* Energy 211Kcal - Carbohydrate 54g - Vitamin B3 10mg 62% Vitamin B6 1. 3mg 102% VitaminB12 1. 3mcg 55% Ginseng Extract 9. 9mg - Inositol 23mg - Taurine 145mg - *%RENI are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.Ingredients Carbonated Water, Sugar, Citric Acid, Artificial Flavor, Maltodextrin, Sodium Citrate, Sodium Hexametaphosphate, Taurine, Potassium Sorbate, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate, Allura Red(Colorant), Inositol, Calcium Disodium EDTA, Modified food for thought Starch, Pan ax Ginseng Extract, Niacinamide, Ascorbic Acid, Cyanocobalamin, (0. 1%) Pyridoxine Hydrochloride. Figure 3. Nutrition Information and Ingredients of Product C. PRODUCT D NUTRITION INFORMATION SERVING SIZE 1 SERVING SIZE 150mL PER SERVING %Daily Values* Calories 110 - Total Fat 0g 0% Sodium 240mg 10% Total Carbohydrate 26g 9% Sugars 26g -.Protein less than 1g - *Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Ingredients Taurine 1,000 mg, Caffeine 75 mg, Inositol 50 mg, Lysine 50 mg, Choline Bitartrate 50 mg, Nicotinamide 20 mg, Pyridoxine HCl (Vitamin B6) 1. 3 mg, Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) 2. 4 mcg, Tartrazine C. I. 19140 (Yellow 5), Citric Acid, Sodium Benzoate, Sugar and Artificially Flavoured. Figure 4. Nutrition Information and Ingredients of Product D. PRODUCT E NUTRITION INFORMATION SERVING SIZE ? 1. 5 SERVING SIZE 8 fl. oz. (240mL) PER SERVING %Daily Values* Calories 195 - Total Fat 3g 1. 2%Sodium 49mg 2% Total Carbohydrates 39g 15% Protein 3g 1. 2% Thia mine Hydrochloride (Vit. B1) 1. 35mg 90% Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vit. B6) 1. 35mg 68% Niacinamide 7mg 37% Vitamin B12 0. 70mcg 12% Taurine 105mg - Inositol 16mg - *%Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Ingredients Water, Sugar, Citric Acid, Flavoring, Sodium Citrate, Taurine, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate, Tartrazine, Inositol, Ginseng Powder, Niacinamide (Vit. B3), sundown Yellow, Thiamine HCl (Vit. B1), Pyridoxine HCl (Vit. B6), Cyanocobalamin (Vit. B12). Figure 5. Nutrition Information and Ingredients of Product E. PRODUCT INGREDIENTS A B C D E Water/Carbonated Water + + + + Sucrose + + + + + Glucose + Citric Acid + + + + + Glucuronolactone + Taurine + + + + + Sodium Citrate + + + Sodium Chloride + Natural Flavors + + Artificial Flavors + + + Caffeine + + + + + Inositol + + + + + Guarana Seed Extract + Panax Ginseng + + + + Niacin (Vit. B3) + + + + Panthotenic Acid (Vit. B5) + Riboflavin (Vit. B2) + Pyroxidine HCL (Vit. B6) + + + + Cyn ocobalamin (Vit. B12) + + + +.Eu Energy Blend + Maltodextrin + Sodium Hexametaphosphate + Potassium Sorbate + Sodium Benzoate + + + Calcium Disodium EDTA + Modified Food Starch + Ascorbic Acid (Vit. C) + Lysine + Choline Bitartrate + Tartrazine + + Food Coloring Allura Red + Caramel Color + Sunset Yellow + Thiamine HCl (Vit. B1) + Ginseng powder + Ferric Pyrophosphate + Sucralose + Multivitamins + Table 3. 1. Common ingredients present among the energy beverages.Table 3. 1 shows the ingredients of products A, B, C, D, and E. Any formulated energy drink may contain the ingredients listed above. All 5 contain carbohydrates, particularly sucrose, and citric acid. Product C has the highest average quantity of carbohydrates which includes sugar, per serving with 54 g. It is followed by Product E with 39 g. , Product A with 34 g. , Product D with 26 g. , and Product B with 12. 5 g. , respectively. Product A, C, D, and E has Niacin, Pyroxidine Hydrochloride and Cyanocobalamin. Riboflavin is present in Product A while product E has Thiamine Hydrochloride.Vitamin B12, Cyanocobalamin, which is present in Product A, C, D, and E has quantities 2 mcg, 1. 3 mcg, 2. 4 mcg, 0. 70 mcg per serving respectively. In Vitamin B12 Dosing Guidelines for General Supplementation, the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin B12 for 14 years old and above is 2. 4 mcg daily. An intake of one serving of Product D could supply the daily need of the body of an average teenager and adult while product per serving is 0. 83 % of our bodys needs for B12 everyday (http//women. emedtv. com). The RDAs indicate the adequate intake of a body for a nutrient.Panax Ginseng is found to be present in Products A, B, C, and E. This ingredient is claimed to play a role on mental, physical and sexual performance. It is said that it could lower blood pressure and hold up blood glucose but there is no current scientific eviden ce notwithstanding on its efficacy (Ernst, 2002). Up to 3,000 mg day of supplemental taurine is safe as considered (http//www. mayoclinic. com). Taurine is an amino acid that may lower blood pressure where systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure in subjects with hypertension have been reduced by 6 grams of supplementary taurine every day (Kohashi et al., 1988).Taurine is present in Product A, B, C, D, and E. It is claimed to control hypertension yet there is insufficient evidence that it can significantly lower the risks of diabetes and epilepsy according to what it is claimed to be. The caffeine present in coffee and pharmaceutical drugs is said to be unhealthy. The caffeine naturally contained in a few herbs such as Yerba Mate, Guarana, Kola Nut, and Green Tea, is naturally occurring caffeine, also known as bio-caffeine and is non-addictive. Moreover, herbal teas are stimulants in nature due to other chemicals beside caffeine.These other stimulants found naturally occurring i n herbs, i. e. mateine (found in Yerba Mate), have similar reaction on the body like caffeine does, but they are not addictive at all (http//dherbs. com/). All products were found out to contain caffeine. But among the other products, only Product A has guarana extract (1 gram of guarana is approximately 40 mg of caffeine). Canadian Guidelines recommend an intake of no more than 85 mg/day for people with ages ranging from 12 years old and above. In a research conducted by Warzak et al. (2010), the hours of sleep is negatively correlated with the amount of caffeine intake.Consumption of caffeine may also affect cognitive decline due to its association with a wide range of clinical variables (Ritchie, 2007). Caffeine may cause a persistent effect on the neurochemical system (Sobotka, 1989). Caffeine on children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was more effective than no treatment in declining impulsivity, aggression, and parents and teachers perceptions of children s symptom severity, compared with Methylphenidate and Amphetamines (http//jad. sagepub. com/). Caffeine is a unbendable stimulant, thus it may reduce daytime tiredness and improve mental focus.However, researches are still a must regarding caffeines effects on the functioning of adolescents and adults with ADHD. 4. terminal After examining the ingredients of the energy drinks, the consumption of the ingredients more than the recommended amounts per day may cause physiological side effects. Caffeinated beverages, to be considered safe, must be limited of no more than the adequate intake of an average man, if a serving is formulated to be consumed once daily. Limited ingestion of these energy drinks most likely does not cause adverse effects.Energy drinks are composed mainly of carbohydrates and different ingredients like taurine, caffeine, and Panax Ginseng which are safe provided that it would be consumed in proper amounts. Caffeine, which is popular to many energy drinks, was fo und out to decline some behavior impairments associated with ADHD such as aggression and impulsivity. References Reissig CJ, Strain EC, Griffiths RR. (2009), Caffeinated energy drinks a growing problem. Drug Alcohol Depend, 99110. Simon, M. Mosher, J. Alcohol (2007), Energy Drinks and Youth A Dangerous Mix. Marin Institute Alcohol Industry Watchdog.(Online) operable at http//www.marininstitute. org/alcopops/resources/ EnergyDrinkReport. pdf. Babu, K. M. , Church, R. J. Lewander, W. Energy drinks the new eye-opener for adolescents, Clin Ped Emerg Med, Vol. 9, 2008, p. 35-42. Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Cognitive and physiological effects of an energy drink an evaluation of the whole drink and of glucose, caffeine and herbal flavouring fractions. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004176320-30. ODea JA.Consumption of nutritional supplements among adolescents workout and perceived benefits. Health Education Research 20031898-107. Savoca MR, Evans CD, Wilson ME, Harshfield GA, Ludwig DA.The as sociation of caffeinated beverages with blood pressure in adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004158473-7.Health Canada. Straight Facts about Drugs and Drug Abuse, Ottawa, ON, 2000. (Online) Available at http//www. hc-sc. gc. ca/hc-ps/alt_formats/hecs-sesc/pdf/pubs/adp-apd/straight_ facts-faits_mefaits/facts-faits-eng. pdf. Health Canada. Food and Nutrition Caffeine and Your Health, March 2003. (Online) Available at http//www. hc-sc. gc. ca/fn-an/securit/facts-faits/caffeine-eng. php. Kristi Monson, PharmD and Arthur Schoenstadt, MD.Vitamin B12 Dosage. (Online) Available at http//women.emedtv. com/vitamin-b12/vitamin-b12-dosage. html. Ernst E. The risk-benefit profile of unremarkably used herbal therapies Ginkgo, St. Johns Wort, Ginseng, Echinacea, Saw Palmetto, and Kava. Ann. Intern Med 200213642-53. Katherine Zeratsky, R. D. , L. D. Taurine is listed as an ingredient in many energy drinks. What is taurine? Is it safe? . (Online)Available at http//www. mayoclinic. com/health/t aurine/AN01856. Kohashi, N. , Katori, R. Decrease of urinary taurine in essential hypertension. Prog. Clin. Bio. Med. 1983. 125, 73. William J. Warzak, PhD, Shelby Evans, PhD, Margaret T.Floress, PhD, Amy C. Gross, PhD and Sharon Stoolman, MD. Caffeine Consumption in Young Children. Munroe-Meyer Institute and the Department of Pediatrics, University of Nebraska health check Center, Omaha, NE. Received 2 April 2010. K. Ritchie, PhD,, I. Carriere, PhD, A. de Mendonca, MD, PhD, F. Portet, MD, PhD, J. F. Dartigues, MD, PhD, O. Rouaud, MD, P. Barberger-Gateau, MD, PhD and M. L. Ancelin, PhD. The neuroprotective effects of caffeine.Neurology August 7, 2007 vol. 69 no. 6 536-545. Caffeine vs. Bio-Caffeine. (Online) Available at http//dherbs. com/articles/caffeine-bio-caffeine-304. html.Sobotka TJ Neurobehavioral effects of prenatal caffeine. Ann NY Acad Sci 1989 562327-339. M. Roth Leon. effect of caffeine on cognitive, psychomotor, and affective performance of children with Attention-De ficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (Online) Available at http//jad. sagepub. com/content/4/1/27. abstract.APPENDIX A Corresponding Labels of Different Energy Drinks Product Energy Drink Product Name A Rockstar B I-ON C Sting D Red Bull E Cobra APPENDIX B Determining the Sample Size n=N1+Ne2 Where n = sample size N = Population size e = margin of error n=71+7(0. 20)2 n=5. 46.

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